Epstein's Theory of Gambling and Statistical
Logic provided the first (and only) detailed
analysis of card shuffling. Epstein conducted
actual shuffles rather than computer-simulated
ones and wrote, "It was found that highly
expert shufflers create sequences in single-card
interlacings approximately eight times as
frequent as twocard interlacings: a group
of three cards appears less than once per
shuffle ... It is evident from this operation
that a large measure of orderliness is preserved
for a small number of shuffles." The
study recorded single-card interlacings 80
percent of the time, two cards 18 percent,
and three cards 5 percent.
Anthony Curtis, editor of the Las Vegas Advisor,
conducted a similar experiment. He obtained
empirical data from four professional Las
Vegas dealers who interleaved single cards
66 percent of the time, two cards 26 percent,
three cards 5 percent, four cards 2 percent,
and five cards less than 1 percent. While
there are substantial differences between
the two studies, it is evident that a player
may, at least in theory, be able to predict
cards to be dealt based on his knowledge of
the shuffle and the previous deck order.
are prohibited from engaging in any activity
that violates the principles of fair play.
including, but not limlited to. the following:
A. Manipulating cards or chips, including
splashing the pot with the intention of slowing
B. Intentionally observing live hole cards
held by other players without announcing that
they are visible.
C. Communicating with other players in order
to develop any unfair advantage, including
collusion, the provision of advice during
a hand, or the announcement of holdings.
D. Implicit collusion, such as two players
agreeing to check through when a third player
is all-in, or a table deliberately playing
slowly to avoid eliminating players.
E. Taking any actions intended to benefit
another player or making arrangements in advance
to split tournament Winnings.